The text fragments


Berasjit 4: 19-22
Reading from right to left, the verses 19-22 can be found between the five red colons in the yellow text area.
'original' text
(reconstructed by removing vowels from masoretic text; 5th-2nd century BCE)
masoretic text
(with vowels; 6th-10th century CE)
Genesis 4: 19-22 KJV

  1. And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one [was] Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.
  2. And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and [of such as have] cattle.
  3. And his brother's name [was] Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.
  4. And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain [was] Naamah.

Genesis 4: 19-22 LXX (285 BCE)

L.C.Lee (1851) trans.
  1. And Lamech took to himself two wives; the name of the one was Ada, and the name of the second Sella.
  2. And Ada bore Jobel; he was the father of those that dwell in tents, feeding cattle.
  3. And the name of his brother was Jubal; he it was who invented the psaltry and harp.
  4. And Sella also bore Thobel; he was a smith, a manufacturer both of brass and iron: and the sister of Thobel was Noëma.


Philo (before 45-50 CE) On the Posterity of Cain and his Exile 100-111, 114-117.

Yonge trans.
...And Jacobís brother, he says, was Jubal, {43}{Genesis 4:21.} and the interpretation of this latter name is "inclining," being symbolically speech according to utterance; for this is naturally the brother of intellect; and it is with extraordinary propriety that he called the conversation of that intellect which changes affairs, "inclining," for it agrees after a fashion and harmonizes with both, as the equivalent weight does in a scale, or as a vessel which is tossed by the sea inclines first to one side and then to the other, from the violence of the waves; for the foolish man has not learnt how to say anything firm or stable. (101) But Moses does not think it right to incline either to the right or to the left, or in short to any part of the earthly Edom; but rather to proceed along the middle way, which he with great propriety calls the royal road, {44}{Numbers 20:17.} for since God is the first and only God of the universe, so also the road to him, as being the kingís road, is very properly denominated royal; and this royal road you must consider to be philosophy, not that philosophy which the existing sophistical crowd of men pursues (for they, studying the art of words in opposition to truth, have called crafty wickedness, wisdom, assigning a divine name to wicked action), but that which the ancient company of those men who practised virtue studied, rejecting the persuasive juggleries of pleasure, and adopting a virtuous and austere study of the honourableó(102) this royal road, which we have stated to be true and genuine philosophy, the law calls the word and reason of God; for it is written, "Thou shalt not turn aside from the word which I command thee this day, to the right hand nor to the left," So that it is shown most manifestly that the word of God is identical with the royal road, since Mosesí words are not to depart either from the royal road, or from this word, as if the two were synonymous, but to proceed with an upright mind along the middle and level road, which leads one aright.

XXXI. (103) "Now this Jubal," says Moses, "is the father who showed men the use of the psaltery and of the harp." {45}{Genesis 4:21.} He in the strictest consistency with nature calls distinctly uttered language the father of music and of all the instruments used in music; for nature, having given the organ of voice to animals as the first and most perfect of organs, afterwards gave to this organ all the harmonies, and all the different kinds of melodies, in order that it might be a previously made model for those organs which are hereafter to be made by art. (104) And as he made an ear spherical, fashioning lesser circles in their greater ones and framing it as in a lathe, with the object of preventing the sounds of the voice which come from without from being wasted and dissipated, so that the voice when collected together and closely packed within the circle might, by a sort of diffusion of the power of hearing, be poured over the different channels of the principal part. And this immediately served as a model for those theatres which are found in handsome cities; so that the shape of a theatre is skilfully dictated by the mechanism of the ear. So also, nature, which formed animals, stretching the rough artery like a musical canon, and wearing beneath the harmonic and chromatic and diatonic kinds of sounds, according to the innumerable variations of combined and separated melodies, made a model in accordance with which every musical instrument might be made.

XXXII. (105) Perhaps, at all events, flutes and lyres, and similar instruments which utter melodies, are as far inferior to the music of nightingales or swans as a thing made after a model, and an imitation must be from the archetypal model, or a perishable species from an imperishable genus; for it is not fitting to compare the music of man with that of any other animal, since it has an especial privilege with which it is honoured, namely, articulate distinctness of speaking; (106) for all other animals, having a broken utterance in their voice, by this and by an incessant change of tones alone give pleasure to our ears. But man, being furnished by nature with the means not only of speaking but also of singing articulately, charms both the sense of hearing and the mind, soothing the one with his song and influencing the other with ideas; (107) for, as an instrument, if it be given into the hands of a man who has no skill as a musician, is inharmonious, but if given to a musician it becomes harmonious according to the skill that is in him. So in the same manner speech, when put in motion by a worthless mind, is inharmonious; but, when it is put in motion by a virtuous mind, it is found to be very melodious. (108) A lyre, indeed, or any similar instrument, if it be not struck by some one, is silent; and speech, too, if it be not struck by the principal part, that is to say, the mind, is of necessity tranquil. And, again, as musical instruments are transposed and adapted to an infinite number of mixtures of airs, so also speech corresponds to them, becoming an interpreter of things; (109) for who would converse in a similar manner with parents and children, being by nature the slave of the one, and by birth the master of the others? And who, again, would talk in the same manner to brothers or cousins; or, in short, to near and to distant relations? Who, again, could do so to friends and to strangers, to fellow citizens and to foreigners, though there may be no great difference in point of fortune, or nature, or age between them? For one must behave differently while associating with an old man and with a young one; and, again, with a man of high reputation and a humble man, with a servant and a master; and, again, with a woman and a man, and with an illiterate and a clever man. (110) And why need one cite an incredible variety of persons to whom speech varies itself, so as at one time to assume one character and at another time another? For it would not interpret great things and small, numerous things and rare, private and public matters, sacred and profane affairs, or old and new events in the same manner; but would use, in each case, language appropriate to the number, or importance, or magnitude of the affairs under discussion; at one time elevating itself to a lofty style, and at another time, on the contrary, confining and humbling itself. (111) But as circumstances and persons give varieties to speech, so also do the causes of things and the manner in which they are done; and, moreover, those points especially with which everything is concerned, namely, time and place. Very beautifully, therefore, is he who inclines voices, namely Jubal, called "the father of the psaltery and of the harp," from a portion of the whole science of music, as has been shown already.

...a son is born, whom his parents called Tubal (this name being interpreted means "all"). For they with great wisdom laying it down (instead of those things which are accounted good things by the multitude) that competency combined with good health is happiness, consider that in that is united everything great or small, in short everything. (115) But if there were any such thing as an absolutely independent authority added, then becoming full of arrogant domination, and elated with vanity and false opinions, forgetting themselves and the contemptible material of which they are composed, they look upon themselves as composed of a more valuable material than the composition of man admits of; and becoming swollen with pride, they think themselves worthy of even divine honours. At all events, before now some persons have ventured to say, that they "do not know the true God," {47}{Exodus 5:2.} forgetting their own human nature, by reason of the immoderate excess of corporeal and external things [... ] and each imagining [...] {48}{Another hiatus occurs here.}

XXXIV. (116) Then Moses says, "He was a hammer-beater and forger of brass and iron:" {49}{Genesis 4:22, where he is called Tubalcain.} for the soul of that man who is intent on corporeal pleasures or external things is beaten by a hammer, like apiece of iron on an anvil, being drawn out according to the long and thin-drawn extensions of the appetites. Accordingly, you may see men fond of their bodies at every time, and in every place laying lines and nets to catch those objects that they desire; and others, who are lovers of money or covetous of glory, letting loose their desire and eagerness for those things to the furthest boundaries of earth and sea, and dragging in from all quarters by their unlimited desires, as if by so many nets, whatever can gratify them, till the excessive tension, being broken by its great violence, drags back those who are dragging at it, and throws them down headlong. (117) All these men are causes of war, on account of which they are said to be workers in brass and iron, by means of which metals wars are carried on.


Josephus (93 CE) Antiquities of the Jews Book I-2:2

Whiston trans./Loeb trans.
...Now Jared was the son of Enoch; whose son was Malaliel; whose son was Mathusela; whose son was Lamech; who had seventy-seven children by two wives, Silla and Ada. Of those children by Ada, one was Jabal/Jobel: he erected tents, and loved the life of a shepherd. But Jubal, who was born of the same mother with him, exercised himself in music; and invented the psaltery and the harp. But Tubal/Jubel, one of his children by the other wife, exceeded all men in strength, and was very expert and famous in martial performances. He procured what tended to the pleasures of the body by that method; and first of all invented the art of making brass. Lamech was also the father of a daughter, whose name was Naamah/Noema.

Old Latin Josephus
Enoch vero irath filius fuit: ex quo maiuahel: cuius fuit filius matusahel qui habuit filium lamech: cui filii & filiae septem & septuaginta fuerunt ex duabus uxoribus eius nati sella & ada. Horum iobal quidem fuit de ada, tabernacula fixit; & greges amavit: tubal consanguineus eius existens: musicam coluit: & psalterium: citharamque laudavit. Tubalcain qui ex altera natus est: fortitudine cunctos excellens: res bellicas decenter exercuit: ex his etiamque ad libidinem attinent corporis enutriuit: ferrariam artem primus invenit: habuitque sororem nomine noemma.

Whiston: Book I-2:3
...They (=the children of Seth) also were the inventors of that peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies, and their order. And that their inventions might not be lost before they were sufficiently known, upon Adam's prediction that the world was to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire, and at another time by the violence and quantity of water, they made two pillars, (10) the one of brick, the other of stone: they inscribed their discoveries on them both, that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries to mankind; and also inform them that there was another pillar of brick erected by them. Now this remains in the land of Siriad to this day.

Old Latin Josephus
Disciplinam vero rerum cælestium & ornatum earum primitus invenerunt: & ne dilaberentur: ab hominibus quæ ab eis inventa fuerant: aut antequam venirent ad cognitionem depirent: cum prædixisset adam exterminationem rerum omnium: unam ignis virtute: alteram aquarum vi ac multitudine fore venturam: duas facientes columnas: aliam ex lateribus : aliam ex lapidibus ambabus quae invenerant conscripserunt: ut & si constructa lateribus exterminaret ab ymbribus: lapidea permanens praeberet hominibus scripta cognoscere: simul & quia lateralem aliam posuissent: quæ tamen lapidea permanet hactenus in terra syria.


Eusebius Hieronymus of Strido (388?) Liber Hebraicarum Quaestionum in Genesim

De bigamia nascitur Jabel habitans in tentoriis, quae mutabilia instabilitatem eorum figurant, qui circumferuntur omni vento doctrinae. Nascitur et Tubal, qui inventor musicae, etc., usque ad sicut Jabel, Tubal et Tubalcain.


Eusebius Hieronymus of Strido (383-405) Editio Vulgata

Genesis 4

  1. ...Matusahel genuit Lamech
  2. qui accepit uxores duas nomen uni Ada et nomen alteri Sella
  3. genuitque Ada Iabel qui fuit pater habitantium in tentoriis atque pastorum
  4. et nomen fratris eius Iubal ipse fuit pater canentium cithara et organo
  5. Sella quoque genuit Thubalcain qui fuit malleator et faber in cuncta opera aeris et ferri soror vero Thubalcain Noemma

Augustinus of Hippo (418) De Civitate Dei Liber XV, caput 17

Sic enim legitur: Mathusael genuit Lamech. et sumpsit sibi Lamech duas uxores, nomen uni Ada et nomen secundae Sella, et peperit Ada Iobel; hic erat pater habitantium in tabernaculis pecuariorum. Et nomen fratris eius Iobal; hic fuit qui ostendit psalterium et citharam. Sella autem peperit et ipsa Tobel; et erat malleator et aerarius aeramenti et ferri. Soror autem Tobel Noemma.


Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus (525) De institutione musica, liber I. Caput X, Quemadmodum Pythagoras proportiones consonantiarum investigaverit.

Haec igitur maxima causa fuit cur, relicto aurium judicio, Pythagoras ad regularum momenta migraverit, qui nullius humanis auribus credens, quae partim natura, partim etiam extrinsecus accidentibus permutantur, partim ipsis variantur aetatibus, nullis etiam deditus instrumentis, penes quae saepe multa varietas atque inconstantia nasceretur, dum nunc quidem si nervos velis aspicere, vel aer humidior pulsus obtunderet, vel siccior exsiccaret, vel magnitudo chordae graviorem redderet sonum, vel acumen subtilior tenuaret, vel alio quodam modo statum prioris constantiae permutaret. Et cum idem esset in caeteris instrumentis, omnia haec inconsulta minimaeque aestimans fidei, diuque aestuans inquirebat quanam ratione firmiter et constanter consonantiarum momenta [-1177-] perdisceret. Cum interea divino quodam motu praeteriens fabrorum officinas, pulsos maleos exaudivit, ex diversis sonis unam quodammodo concinentiam personare. Ita igitur ad id quod diu inquirebat attonitus, accessit ad opus: diuque considerans, arbitratus est diversitatem sonorum ferientium vires efficere. Atque ut id apertius colliqueret, mutarent inter se malleos imperavit. Sed sonorum proprietas non in hominum lacertis haerebat, sed mutatos malleos comitabatur. Ubi igitur id animadvertit, malleorum pondus examinat. Et cum quinque essent forte mallei, dupli reperti sunt pondere qui sibi secundum diapason consonantiam respondebant. Eumdem etiam qui duplus esset alio, sesquitertium alterius comprehendit, ad quem scilicet diatessaron sonabat. Ad alium vero quemdam, qui eidem diapente consonantia jungebatur, eumdem superioris duplum reperit esse sesquialterum. Duo vero hi, ad quos superior duplex sesquitertius et sesquialter esse probatus [-1178-] est, ad se invicem sesquioctavam proportionem perpensi sunt custodire. Quintus vero est rejectus, qui cunctis erat inconsonans. Cum igitur ante Pythagoram consonantiae musicae, partim diapason, partim diapente, partim diatessaron, quae est consonantia minima, vocarentur primus Pythagoras hoc modo reperit, qua proportione sibimet haec sonorum chorda jungeretur. Et ut sit clarius quod dictum est, sint, verbi gratia, malleorum quatuor pondera, iquae subterscriptis numeris contineatur, 12, 9, 8, 6. Hi igitur mallei, qui 12 et 6 ponderibus vergebant, diapason in duplo concinentiam personabant. Malleus vero 12 ponderum ad malleum 9, et malleus 8 ponderum ad malleum 6 ponderum, secundum epitritam proportionem diatessaron consonantia jungebatur. Novem vero ponderum ad 6, et 12 ad 8 diapente consonantiam permiscebant. Novem vero ad 8, in sesquioctava proportione resonabant tonum.


Pseudo-Methodius (600?) Revelationes Caput 2

2. Anno autem CCCXL Jared secundo miliario surrexerunt viri malae artis, inventores iniqui et omne nefariae pleni ex filiis Cain, id est Jobeth et Tholucel, filii Lamech, qui fuit caecus, qui et Cain interfecit, quos et dominatus diabulus convertit eos post omnem speciem musicam conponendi.


Isidori Hispalensis (615) De musica Caput XVI. De inventoribus ejus.

Moyses dicit repertorem musicae artis fuisse Tubal, qui fuit de stirpe Cain ante diluvium. Graeci vero Pythagoram dicunt hujus artis invenisse primordia, ex malleorum sonitu, et cordarum extensione percussa.


Rabanus Maurus (846) De rerum Natura Liber 18, De musica et partibus eius

Moyses dicit repertorem musicae artis fuisse Tubal, qui fuit de stirpe Cain ante diluuium. Greci uero Pythagoram dicunt huius artis inuenisse primordia ex malleorum sonitu et cordarum extensione percussa.


Walafrid Strabo (9th century) Biblia Vulgata Glossa Ordinaria Vetus Testamenti

Genesis 4

  1. Genuitque Ada Jabel, etc. HIER. in quaest. Hebr. De bigamia nascitur Jabel habitans in tentoriis, quae mutabilia instabilitatem eorum figurant, qui circumferuntur omni vento doctrinae. Nascitur et Tubal, qui inventor musicae, etc., usque ad sicut Jabel, Tubal et Tubalcain.
  2. Et nomen fratris ejus Jubal. RAB. Hunc scribit Josephus musicam scripsisse in duabus columnis, una lapidea, altera latericia, quarum altera non dissolveretur diluvio, altera quae non solveretur incendio: quae duo judicia Adam ventura praedixerat.
  3. Tubalcain. RAB. Qui secundum Josephum res bellicas exercuit, et decenter artem ferrariam docuit; quaedam etiam quae ad oculorum pertinent concupiscentiam, invenit.


Guido of Arrezo (995-1050) Micrologus Capitulum XX: Quomodo musica ex malleorum sonitu sit inventa

Erant antiquitus instrumenta incerta et canentium multitudo, sed caeca; nullus enim hominum vocum differentias et symphoniae descriptionem poterat aliqua argumentatione colligere, neque posset unquam [-229-] certum aliquid de hac arte cognoscere, nisi divina tandem bonitas, quod sequitur suo nutu disponeret.

Cum Pythagoras quidam magnus philosophus forte iter ageret, ventum est ad fabricam in qua super unam incudem quinque mallei feriebant, quorum suavem concordiam miratus philosophus accessit primumque in manuum varietate sperans vim soni ac modulationis existere, mutavit malleos. Quo facto sua vis quemque secuta est. Subtracto itaque uno qui dissonus erat a caeteris alios ponderavit, mirumque in modum divino [-230-] nutu primus XII, secundus IX, tertius VIII, quartus VI, nescio quibus ponderibus appendebant.


Petrus Comestor (1160) Historia Scholastica: Historia Libri Genesis, Caput 28: De generationibus Cain

...Porro Henoch genuit Irad, qui Maviael, qui Mathusael, qui Lamech, qui septimus ab Adam, et pessimus, qui primus bigamiam introduxit, et sic adulterium contra legem naturae, et Dei decretum, commisit. In prima enim creatione unica unico facta est mulier, et Deus per os Adae decreverat: Erunt duo in carne una Gen. II. Accepitque duas uxores Adam et Sellam. Genuitque Ada Jabel, qui adinvenit portatilia pastorum tentoria ad mutanda pascua, et greges ordinavit, et characteribus distinxit, separavitque secundum genera greges ovium a gregibus hoedorum, et secundum qualitatem, ut unicolores a grege sparsi velleris, et secundum aetatem, ut anniculos a maturioribus, et commissuras certis temporibus faciendas intellexit. Nomen fratris ejus Tubal, pater canentium in cithara, et organo. Non instrumentorum quidem, quae longe post inventa fuerunt, sed inventor fuit musicae, id est consonantiarum, ut labor pastoralis quasi in delicias verteretur. Et quia audierat Adam prophetasse de duobus judiciis, ne periret ars inventa, scripsit eam in duabus columnis, in qualibet totam, ut dicit Josephus, una marmorea, altera latericia, quarum altera non diluetur diluvio, altera non solveretur incendio. Marmoream dicit Josephus adhuc esset in terra Syriaca. Sella genuit Tubalcain, qui ferrariam artem primus invenit, res bellicas prudenter exercuit, sculpturas operum in metallis in libidinem oculorum fabricavit. Quo fabricante Tubal, de quo dictum est, sono metallorum delectatus, ex ponderibus eorum proportiones, et consonantias eorum, quae ex eis nascuntur excogitavit, quam inventionem Graeci Pythagorae attribuunt fabulose, sicut et ex opere fructicum excogitavit operari, id est sculpere in metallis. Cum enim fructices incendisset in pascuis, venae metallorum fluxerunt in rivulos, et sublatae laminae figuras locorum in quibus jacuerant, referebant. Soror vero Tubalcain, Noema, quae invenit artem variae texturae...


Vincent de Beauvais (1260) Speculum Historiale (ed. Douai, 1624), Liber II, Caput 57: De ortu ecclesie ab Abel

Lamech enim primus contra naturam et mores bigamiam introduxit et sic adhuc adulterium committit. Cuius etiam progenies artes quasdam mechanicas et curiositates adinvenit, Iabel scilicet portatilia tentoria pastorum, *Iubal vero peritiam sonorum musicorum sive consonantiarum que pertinent ad voluptatem aurium, Tubalcaym artem ferrariam et sculpturas metallorum deservientes concupiscentie et libidini oculorum, Noema quoque soror eius invenit artem varie texture, et omnes pene seculares artes vel scientie, sive mechanice sive liberales vel physice, curiositati vel etiam necessitati sive exercitationi humane deservientes, a filiis huius seculi leguntur invente.


Hugo Spechtshart von Reutlingen (1285-1350) Flores Musice omnis cantus gregoriani (ed. 1488), Prooemium

...Primus autem inventor musicæ artis fuit Tubal ante tempus mosaicæ legis et ante deluvium. Unde legitur genesis iv, quod Lamech, qui fuit de stirpe Cain, et septimum post Adam, duos habuit filios, nomen uni Abel, qui fuit pater habitantium in tentoriis atque pastoriis, et nomen fratris ejus Tubal, qui fuit pater canentium in cithara et organo, quæ sunt instrumenta musicalia. Iste Tubal inventor musicæ artis, cognoscens, quod Adam primus homo (a quo ipse Tubal erat octavo in genealogia) prædixerat, mundum periturum et deleturum (?) per aquam et ignem, ne musica periret, scripsit ipsam in duas columnas. quarum una fuit latericia, altera marmorea, ut, si marmorea per ignem periret, latericia permaneret, vel si per aquam latericia periret, marmorea permaneret. Pro maximo enim thesauro habebat illam scientiam, quæ etiam post diluvium (quo omnes homines præter NoŽ et tres filios suos cum suis uxoribus deleti per iram Dei fuerant) in tabula marmorea post egressionem NoŽ de archa fuerat denuo adinventa. Unde de hoc scribit egregius doctor et metrificator, dominus et magister Petrus in libro, qui intitulator „Aurora”, duo decim versus:

   Iste Tubal cantu gaudens pater exstitit horum,
      Qui citharis psallant organicisque modis.
   Musica dulce canens fuit ars inventa per illum,
      Ut pastoralis gaudeat inde labor.
   Et quia novit, Adam primum dixisse parentem
      Judicium duplex seculis ignis aquæ,
   In geminis artem scripsit posuitque columnis;
      Exstitit hæc laterum, marmoris illa fuit.
   Ut non hæc per aquam pereat, non illa per ignem
      Si sit defeciens una, sit una manens,
   Ut nobis Josephi declarant scripta: columnam
      Marmoream tellus syria servat adhuc.

Et quia scribitur in principio eclessiasticæ historiæ: „Omnis sapientia a domino Deo est et cum illo fuit spiritus et est ante eum”, ipse Deus, qui per spiritum sanctum primo cordi Tubal (de quo supra dictum est), scientiam musicæ artis infudit, qui etiam dividit singulis prout vult (ut ait apostulus Paulus), deinde eandem scientiam cordibus etiam aliorum infudit. Unde scribitur, quod Pythagoras philosophus primus apud Græcos musicæ artis repertor fuit. Translator autem ejusdem artis in latinum Boethius, genere et scientia clarissimus et ejusdem artis secundum numerorum proprortionem investigator profundissimus. Guido vero monachus exstitit vocum indagator diligentissimus et commendator et traditorque certissimus.

Dividitur autem musica in tres species. Alia enim vocator harmonica, alia rigmica (rhytmica), alia metrica. Harmonica est quæ discernit inter sonos, videlicet gravem et acutem, et est idem harmonica et discretio modulationis. Rigmica est, quæ requirit inquisitionem dictionum, utrum bene vel male cohæreant dictiones. Metrica est, quæ mensuram diversorum metrorum ostendit probabili ratione. De prima autem specie (quæ primitus per Pythagoras juxta varios sonos malleorum fabricantium ex varia intentione et remissione cordarum fuit considerata) duabus aliis omissis tractatur in hoc opusculo. Sunt et aliæ variæ divisiones musicæ, quæ hic causa brevitas sunt omissæ.


Anonymous (early 15th century) De origine et effectu musicae, Capitulum 5, Inventores artis musicae aequeformis et mensurabilis

L 56v
Erat Tubal nomine quidam faber, qui per pondera trium malleorum super unam incudem percutiens, consonantias ordinavit. Audiens autem Pictagoras illum sonum, domum ingrediens fabri, fecit proportionaliter quartum malleum qui adinvicem sonum mirabilem reddiderunt. Quod cum Tubal audivit et scivit quod deus voluit mundum periclitari, fecit duas columnas, scilicet unam aeneam, alteram lateram. Et in ambabus scripsit artem musicalem aequiformem, id est planum cantum, ut si destrueretur mundus per ignem, columna latera permaneret, quia later non potest cremari. Si vero per aquam, columna aenea permaneret donec diluvium Noe perimpletum fuisset.


? (1450) Cooke Manuscript (British Museum: "Additional M.S. 23,198", line 200-226)
Transcription and translation by Matthew Cooke, 1861.

THe master of stories [200]
seith and beda de yma
gyna mundi policronicon &
other mo seyn that he was
the first that made deperceson
of lond that every man myght
knowe his owne grounde
and laboure there on as for
his owne. And also he de
partid flockes of schepe that
every man myght know his [210]
owne schepe and so we may [Fol. 11 b.]
sey that he was the first
founder of that sciens. And his
brother Juball. or tuball
was founder of mysyke &
song as pictogoras seyth
in policronycon and the
same seythe ylodoure in his
ethemologii in the vi boke
there he seythe that he was [220]
the first foundere of mysyke
and song and of organ &
trompe and he founde that
sciens by the soune of pon/deracion
of his brotheris hamers that [Fol. 12.]
was tubalcaym.
The master of stories
saith, and Bede, De Im-
agine Mundi,
{the] Policronicon, and
other more say that he was
the first that made depercession
of land, that every man might
know his own ground,
and labour thereon, as for
his own. And also he de-
parted flocks of sheep, that
every man might know his
own sheep, and so we may
say that he was the first
founder of that science. And his
brother Jubal, or Tubal,
was [the] founder of music and
song, as Pythagoras saith
in [the] Policronicon and the
same saith Isodore in his
Ethemologies, in the 6th book,
there he saith that he was
the first founder of music,
and song, and of organ and
trumpet, and he found that
science by the sound of pon-/deration
of his brother's hammers, that
was Tubal Cain.


Gaffurio, Franchino (1492) Theorica musice, liber primus, De Exquisitione et Inuentione Musicarum Consonantiarum Capitulum Octauum
NB From the errors in this text it seems that it is either badly scanned or that the original is of poor quality.

DIuturni studii lectione depraehendi musices disciplinam antiquis temporibus apud uates maximo doctissimorum honore [Iosephus, Iubal in marg.] complecti quippe quam Iosephus. ac sacre littere Iubalem de stripe chaym cythara et organo primum instituisse ferunt ex numeraro maleorum sonitu exquisitam...

... Accidit enim dum tanta Pythagoras ipse uariatione perplexus fabrorum officinas preteriret maleorum sonitus eius auribus insonuisse. quos cum ei mos esset omnium uisilium atque inuisilium et sensilium rationem perquirere: mutari iussit: et cum aduerteret diuersos maleorum sonitus non uiribus hominum immutari: sed diuersis maleorum ipsorum [-f.bvr-] educi ponderibus: pondera ipsa examinare coepit quorum cum quinque essent quintum abiecit: ut Boetius asserit quoniam cunctis erat inconsonans. [Boetius in marg.] At quattuor ipsorum extremos sibi inuicem maleos duplum correspondere pondus percepit diapason consonantiam producentes: ut si maleus primus esset librarum sex: ultimus duodecim pondere premeretur. Secundus ad primum epitritum pondus seruabat diatessaron consonantiam seruans eratque ponderis octo librarum. Sed tertius ad primum emiolium seu sesqualterum pondus nouenario ducebat numero diapentes consonantiam resonando. Idemque tertius ad secundum sexquioctauum pondus seruabat tonum constituens. Quartus uero tertium epitrito numero custodiebat diatessaron consonantiam implens. Rursus Quartus ad secundum sesqualtero numero ductus diapentes consonantiam deferebat ipsorum itaque pondera maleorum hic ordine disponantur. VI . VIII . VIIII . XII. [Pythagoras in marg.] Cum uero alta cogitatione tantae tam que archanae rei diuturna inquisitio Pythagoram ipsum fatigasset mihi ipsi facile persuadeo eum non modo has quatuor sonorum commistiones sed et reliquas inuestigasse quibus musices disciplina perficitur et nutritur.

...[Iosephus in marg.] Iosephus autem hanc Pythagoream inquisitionem Iubali ante diluiuum ascripsit: quippe qui ipsum uerens diluuium cum Adam humano generi praenunciasset mundum igne cito aut aqua periturum sonorum artem adeo gratissimam et peculiarem habuit ut ipsas consonantias et proportiones duabus columnis marmorea scilicet et latericia sculptura insigniret: marmorea quidem ne putrefieret influctibus: latericia uero ne solueretur ab igne: quam post diluuium posteritas ipsa repperit usui que mandauit. Harum quidem exquisitarum proportionum eductarumque consonantiarum formas demonstrat hec subiecta figura:
[-f.bvir-] [Gafurius, Theorica, f.bvir; text: Ivbal, Pytagora, Pitagoras, Phylolavs, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 16]


Reisch, Gregor (1517) Margarita Philosophica 4th edition, Liber V: De principiis Musice.
NB In an attempt to recreate the original page layout as faithfully as possible, I decided not to resolve the contracted characters, but mark them in red. A problem in the second line I had with reading the (contracted) text sc was solved after I acquired a Manual on Latin and Italian abbreviatures in juli 2004.

De Musice primo inventore CAP.IIII.DI.

Uem arbitrant primu musicu et musice inventore? Ma. Tubale filiu Lamech. scm qd dicit de ipso Geneseos.4.ca. Ipse fuit pater canentiu cithara et organo: eo qui primus musica invenit:is eam in duabus colunis / latericia sc3 et lapidea posteris reliquit. Latericia quidem: ne igne/lapidea vero ne aqua periret. Adam naqe mundum igne et aqua pe rituru perdixerat. Pythagoras vero philosophus sonoru pportiones ex- perimento didicit. Na cum diutius animo estuaret qua na ratione firmiter csonantiaru mometa perdisceret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attamen Pe trus Comestor in historia scholastica id a predicto Tubale factitatum / et a grecis Pythagore fabulose attributu autumat:habuit enim Tubal fratre qui artem ferraria invenit:quo fabricante Tubal ex malleoru pportione dicto mo do csonatias reperit. Sed cu hoc pauci videat esse momenti / relinquendu esse censeo.



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Last update: 1 august, 2004
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